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Nightly Ramadan Readings

Night (Juz') 7 - March 16, 2024

Chapter 5

Verses 83–86

When they (the Christians mentioned in the previous verse) come to understand what has been revealed to the Messenger (Mohammad), they are overwhelmed (with emotion and) tears in their eyes as they fully comprehend the truth. They say: “Our Sustainer, we reaffirm our faith and include ourselves among those who bear witness (to the truth). What reasons do we have not to believe in ALLAH and the truth that has come to us while we truly aspire to be among the people of faith and truth?” So God rewards them with Paradise - wherein the river flows - to reside as a fitting recognition for those who do good. But those who continue to deny God and reject the messages are destined for the evil of flaming fire.

Verses 87–93

O People of Faith: Do not deprive yourself of all that ALLAH has gifted you of good things, but stay within limits of its use (consumption, extraction, accumulation, etc.). Surely God loves not those who exceed limits. Benefit from all that is lawful and pure that God has blessed you with, and be conscious of your responsibility to God (taqwa) in Whom you believe. God will not hold you accountable for minor and casual oaths you might make, but He will call you to account for deliberate oaths that you make, in which case you can expiate such oath (1) by feeding ten needy people in the same measure that you feed your family or (2) by clothing them or (3) by freeing a person from bondage, and if you do not have the means or access to such remedy, then

fast for three days. This is the expiation for oaths that you take (but can’t keep or should not keep). Be faithful to your oaths when you make them. This is how God makes His message clear to you so that you can give thanks.

O People of Faith: Intoxicants, games of chance, the practice of idolatry, fortune-telling, etc., are loathsome and the Devil’s work. Stay clear of these, that you may be successful. The Devil only desires to keep you from remembrance of God and your worship of God by such means as intoxicants and games of chance. Will you not then refrain from such? Attend to God’s message and His Messenger and be ever cautious against evils; but if you fail to heed, then know that the Messenger is only trusted to convey the message. Those who believe and do good, they incur no blame to eat as long as they are mindful of their responsibilities, have faith, and do good and continue to increase in their commitment to their responsibilities, faith and good work. God certainly loves those who do good.

Verses 94–100

O People of Faith: ALLAH will certainly try you with respect to game (of hunt during pilgrimage) that comes within your reach and your weapons so that God can ascertain who is conscious of Him unseen. Whoever goes outside the boundary of this guidance will face its due consequence. O People of Faith: do not kill game when you are on pilgrimage, and whoever does this intentionally, he will compensate (such an offense) by sacrificing the cattle equivalent as judged by two persons of good faith, to be brought to Kabah, or he can expiate by feeding the poor or fasting in an equivalent manner—this is such that he can face the gravity of his conduct. God forgives any past misdeeds on this, but whoever returns to it (after clear guidance), God will make him suffer its consequence. God is ever Mighty, an Avenger against the unjust.

Beneficial to you is the game of the sea and what it provides, a provision for you and for travelers, and the game of the land is forbidden when you are in pilgrimage. Be mindful of your responsibility (taqwa) to God Who will gather you all to Him. He had made the Kabah, the Inviolable House, a symbol for benefit to mankind, with its sacred month, the offerings with embellishments to make you aware that God knows all that is in the heavens and on earth; He knows all that exists. Be cognizant that God avenges all evils while at the same time He is Ever Forgiving and Merciful. The Messenger is here only to deliver messages, and God knows what you do openly and what you hide.

Say: “Good (pure) and bad (unclean) are not the same, though the presence and abundance of bad may please you. So be mindful of your responsibilities (taqwa) to God (and to fellow humans) if you claim to be a person who understands, to ensure your success.”

Verses 101–108

O People of Faith: Do not ask for (undue details) of things (regarding rules or guidance), to prevent such details from becoming burdensome for you. If you ask such details while the Qur’an is being revealed (or afterward from Prophet), these might indeed be revealed. ALLAH forgives this (some of your eagerness). God is Forgiving, Forbearing. People before have asked such questions and then failed to fulfill, thus becoming deniers.

God does not ordain or require any animal to be segregated. Such devices are a fabrication of lies against God due to their lack of understanding. When they are told: “Attend to what God had revealed and align with the Messenger,” they say: “We find sufficient the practices and ways of our forefathers.” But what if their forefathers did not have the knowledge or the guidance? O People of Faith: Take care of your soul by being responsible (taqwa). If you are on the right path, the endeavors of those who err will not harm you. To God you all will come back, and He will certainly inform you about your doings.

O People of Faith: When your death approaches you and you make a will, call witnesses from among you or from outside, if you happen to travel and death befalls you—two persons of integrity. You should ask them after performing a prayer; if you feel doubtful about their integrity, then ask each to swear by God: “We will not take any gains for the sake of any relatives or hide this testimony before God. Otherwise, we will be committing a sin.” If it turns out (or is suspected) that these witnesses are guilty of such sin, then two others shall come forth whose rights have been violated, to witness against the first two and shall swear by God: “We consider our testimony truer than the testimony of these two, and we have not transgressed the boundary of what is right; for if we do, then we are committing an evil.” Such arrangement makes it more probable that the first party will give true testimony or will fear that other oaths will be taken (if warranted) after theirs. Be mindful of responsibility (taqwa) and strive (to follow the guidance)—God does not guide people who transgress.

Verses 109–120

When ALLAH will gather all the Messengers and ask: “How was the response (from your community to your messages)?” they will reply: “We have no knowledge (beyond our time), whereas You are the Knower of all that is hidden or unseen.” God will (turn to Jesus and) say: “O Jesus, Son of Mary, do you remember My favor to you and to your mother—how I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit; how you spoke to people from childhood to grown age; how I taught you revelations, wisdom, the Torah, and the Gospel; how you shaped out of clay the form of a bird and breathed into it so that it became a bird by My permission; how you would heal the blind and the leper by My grace; how you raised those who were dead by My grace; and how I protected you from the Children of Israel when you came to them with a clear message.” Yet those who persist in denial say: ‘This (Jesus and his message) is nothing but a manifest enchantment (deception)!’”

Remember when I[God] inspired the disciples of Jesus: Believe in Me and My Messenger, to which they all replied: “We believe and do take our testimony that we submit to God (as muslims).” (Also remember) when his disciples said: “O Jesus, Son of Mary, is your Sustainer able to send us a repast from Heaven?” Jesus replied: “Be mindful of God if you claim to have faith.” They said: “We desire to partake in it so that our soul might find comfort (in our belief), that we come to know that you speak the truth and that we can be a witness to all of these.” So Jesus, Son of Mary, prayed: “O God, our Sustainer, send down from Heaven a repast to us—a source of ever-recurring comfort, to the first of us and to the last of us, and a symbol (of grace) from you. Provide for us; You are the Best of those who provide.”

God replied: “Surely I am sending (as I always do) such repast as you asked for, but if afterward any of you continue to deny the truth, then I will inflict punishment like the one that has not visited anyone on the earth before.” God said: “O Jesus, Son of Mary, did you tell people: ‘Take me and my mother as two gods beside God’?” He will reply: “O God, Your Glory is limitless; how can I say something that I have no right to say? If I had said such a thing, You would have known. I do know what I had in my mind, but I do not know what is in Your mind. You are the Knower of all that is hidden and unseen. I said to them nothing other than what you commanded me to say: ‘Serve God, who is my Sustainer and your Sustainer.’ I (Jesus) was a witness among them as long as I was with them, but after my death, You were their Keeper, and You are a Witness to all things. So, if you chastise them, then surely they are your servants, and if you forgive them, then you are ever Almighty and Wise.”

God will say (on Judgment Day): “On this day truth will benefit those who were truthful—theirs is the garden (of peace and plenty) in which the river flows, and they will reside there forever; God is well pleased with them, and they are well pleased with Him. God’s dominion extends all over the heavens, the earth, and all that are in between. His will encompasses everything.”

Chapter 6 Al Anam (The Cattle)

Verses 1–11

In the name of ALLAH, the God of Mercy, the Endower of Mercy!

May ALLAH, Who created the universe and the earth, and intertwined light and darkness, be praised. Yet those who deny such reality wish to equate others to God. It is God Who created you all from clay and assigned a term (to each), a term that is only known to Him; still you are in a state of self-doubt. God permeates everywhere in the universe and in the earth, knowing all that is secret or open, and He knows what you strive for.

And there comes to them no message from their Sustainer God except that they turn away from it; thereby, they reject the truth when it comes to them, but soon the news will come to them about what they have mocked previously. Do they not see and reflect how We removed generations before who were established on the earth in ways that were not given to you—an abundance of rain from the sky and waterways flowing in the midst of them. Yet We destroyed them for their deliberate sins and bring in their place another generation (to see how they behave).

If We had sent down to you a writing on a paper that you can touch, and they could touch it with their own hand, it would still lead those who deny the truth to say: “This is nothing but a manifest illusion.” Others say: “Why has not an Angel been sent to him?” If We had sent an Angel, then their term would have ended, and they would find no further opportunity to mend themselves. Moreover, if we had made the messenger as an angel instead, we would have made him appear as a human, and they would still be confused the same way. Surely messengers before you were made fun of, and those who made such mockery were overwhelmed by that which they mocked. Say: “Travel the earth and see what the consequences of their denials were.”

Verses 12–24

Let them ask: “To whom does all that is in the universe and the earth belong to?” Say: “It is to ALLAH, and He willed His grace and mercy to permeate (everything). He will gather everyone on the Day of Judgment—an eventuality about which there is no doubt. Those who neglect their soul will not achieve faith. All that dwell during the night and the day are His—He Knows and He Hears!”

Ask them: “Shall I be aligned with others against God Almighty, Who is the Originator of the Universe and the Earth? God feeds others but does not need to be fed.” Say: “I am commanded to be first among those who submit to God and not be a polytheist.” Say: “I fear the consequences on a Day of awesome calamity if I were to rebel against my Sustainer God. Whoever avoids such a calamity on that Day is indeed blessed with God’s mercy. This is an achievement to celebrate!”

If God lets a misfortune touch you, there is none who can remove it except He; if God provides you with good fortune, then you should know that God is ever powerful over all that exists. God alone is Supreme above all His creations; God is Wise, and God is Aware! Ask: “What thing is the best as a witness?” Say: “It is God Who is a witness between you and me; this Qur’an has been revealed to me so that I can inform and warn you and those it will eventually touch.” Yet do you really bear witness that there are other deities besides God?” Say: “I bear no such witness; God is One, and I am clear of any other divine associations.”

To those who were given books before recognize this (the Qur’an) just as they recognize their own children; those who neglect their soul will not strive for faith. Who is more unjust than he who invents lies against God and His messages? Surely such unjust will not achieve any measure of success. We will gather them together on a given Day and ask those who assigned partners with God: “Where are the deities you asserted?” Their (self-deprecating) excuse on that day would be nothing other than this: “God, You are our Lord; we were not polytheists.” See how they will belie themselves and all their false assertions will fail them.

Verses 25–32

Among them are those who come to you to listen, but there is a filter over their hearts so that they do not understand, and there is a deafness in their hearing. They will not achieve faith even if all possible signs are shown to them. They only come with an intent to argue with you. Those who deny faith have only this to say: “This (Qur’an) is nothing but stories of the ancients.” They discourage others from it, and they themselves keep away from it; thus they harm their own souls and fail to perceive.

If you could witness when they will be made to stand before the fire, they would say: “Could we be sent back? We would then certainly not deny the message from our Lord, and we will be among the believers.” The truth that they denied will be made known to them. Even if they were sent back, they would surely go back to what was forbidden before, and they are truly liars. Some of them say: “There is nothing beyond the life of this world, and we will not be raised after our death.” Again, if you could only see them when they will stand before their Sustainer God, Who will ask: “Isn’t this the truth?” They will say: “Yes, our Sustainer.” God will say: “Then face the consequences of your disbelief!”

Lost indeed are those who fail to prepare to meet their Sustainer God. That meeting comes to them suddenly, and they will say: “Too bad for us that we neglected such a meeting!” It is a burden they will have to face, and it is an evil of a burden to carry on one’s back. The life of this world is but a play and a sport (unless one makes good use of it), and the life after death will be better for those who act responsibly. What is it that you fail to understand?

Verses 33–41

We [God] know what they say pains you (O Prophet), but it is not you that they give the lie to; it is ALLAH’s message that these unjust people deny. God’s Messengers before you were similarly denied, and they faced patiently such denials and persecutions until God’s help came to them. God’s way of dealing with such situations does not change, as there have come to you the stories of some of these Messengers already.

If their denials are really unbearable for you, then perhaps you should seek an opening into the earth or a ladder to climb to the sky to try to bring them a sign, whereas, if God had willed, He would have certainly brought all of them to His guidance. Therefore, do not act in ignorance (of God’s ways). It is only those who pay attention who will accept the message. As for those who are dead, God will raise them so that they will return to Him.

They ask: “Why has his God not sent him a sign?” Say: “Surely God is able to send a sign.” But most of them are oblivious (to such signs)—there are no animals on earth nor birds that fly on two wings but that are creatures and communities like yourself. We have not neglected anything in the Book (the Qur’an). Eventually to your Sustainer all will be gathered. Those who deny God’s message are like those who are deaf and dumb and (live) in darkness. Whom God wills, He leaves in their errant ways, and whom God wills, He puts them on the Straight Path.

Say: “What would you do if God’s displeasure were to affect you, or you are faced with the Hour of judgment? Would you call upon God or someone else? Let’s be truthful!” Yes, it is to God that you will supplicate, and He removes what you prayed for; you will forget (in those hours) what other deities you subscribed to.

Verses 42–50

We (God) did indeed sent messengers to communities before you and let distress and afflictions touch them to see if they would find humility. Why did they not seek humility when misfortune decreed by Us [God] fell on them? Instead, their hearts hardened, and the Devil made their activities as if it were good for them. While they were negligent of what they were told to be mindful about, We opened up the gate of all things—so that joy and abundance seemed permanent to them. Then We seized them suddenly, and they found themselves in utter despair. So, in the end, the stance of those who did evils was removed. Praise be to ALLAH, the Sustainer of the Universe!

Say: “Have you considered this possibility—If God were to take away your hearing and your sight, and harden your heart, who is there besides God that can bring these back to you?” This is how We expound the message in different ways, yet they walk away in arrogance. Say: “If God’s displeasure were to descend suddenly or in a perceptible way, would it destroy anyone other than those who do evil?”

We (God) do not send messengers except as the expounders of goodness and to warn; therefore, whoever believes and acts righteously will have no reason to fear or grieve, but for those who reject Our Guidance, evil consequence will envelop them because of their corruptions. Say: “I do not claim that I own treasures from God or that I know what is hidden by God or that I am an Angel; I strictly follow what has been revealed to me (by God).” Are the blind and the one who has sight the same—how can you not then reflect?

Verses 51–60

Remind them with this revelation, those who recognize that they will be gathered in front of their Sustainer—where they will have no protector and no one to intercede on their behalf—perhaps this will make them mindful of their responsibility. And do not drive away from you those who call upon ALLAH daily in the morning and in the evening seeking God’s blessings. You are in no way accountable for them, nor are they accountable for you. Should you ignore them (in favor of others), then you will become one of those who are unjust. It is this way that God tries some of them against others when they say: “Are these the people whom God had favored over us?” Do they not know that God is the best in knowing who truly is grateful?

When those who accept Our (God’s) messages come to you, say: “Peace. Your Sustainer has willed upon Himself Mercy; therefore, if any among you does evil in ignorance and then turns away from it and lives righteously, he will find God full of Mercy and Forgiveness.”

Say: “I am forbidden to worship anyone you call upon besides God Almighty. I cannot follow your conjectures; otherwise, I will lose the way and will not be among those who are guided.” Say: “I am firmly rooted on evidence (of truth) from my Sustainer, and you call it a lie. It is not in my power to fulfill what you ask for in haste. Judgment and decision belong to God alone. God expounds the truth, and He is the best to decide.” Say: “If I were empowered to fulfill your demands, the matter would be settled already between you and me. But it is God Who knows who does evil. With God is the knowledge of what is unknown—none knows but He. He knows what is in the land and what is in the sea. Not a leaf falls but He knows, nor is there a grain in the deep darkness of the earth or a thing green or dry; all are clearly defined and documented. He is the One Who takes your soul away as you sleep at night, and He knows what you accomplish during the day. He lets you rise each day so that your appointed term for life can be completed. Eventually all of you will gather back to God, and He will inform you of the end results of your lifelong pursuits.”

Verses 61–70

ALLAH has dominion over His creation, and He deploys preservers (guardian angels; see 13:11) over you; when death comes to one of you, Our Messengers (angels) cause his death, and they never fail. Then those who have died are brought back to God, their true Master. To God belongs all matters of judgment, and He is ever prompt in taking accountability.

Say: “Who removes the calamities of the land and the sea? You call upon God in humility and in secret: ‘God, if You deliver us from this, we will commit to be grateful.’” Say: “It is God Who saves you from this and every other distress; yet you ascribe divinity to others.” Say: “God has the power to send a torment from above or from under your feet or to confuse you with your mutual distrust and disagreements so much so that you suffer the violence of others.” See how We expound the realities and the messages so that you might understand. Your people call it (the message) a lie, whereas it is the truth. Say: “I am not responsible for you; for every prophecy there is a term set, and in time you will come to know.”

When you come across those who indulge in vain talk regarding Our message, do not engage until they move into some other discourse. Should you forget, then do not continue with such evil folks after you have realized your lapse. Those who are conscious of their responsibility are not responsible for such evil folks except that they should continue to remind such folks so that they might attain consciousness as well. Such people who take guidance for mockery and sports and who are beguiled by the life of this world should continue to be reminded, lest an individual life come to nothing for its actions; such individual will have no friend nor an aid to intercede with God nor an offer of compensation will be accepted. It is these people who reduce life to nothing by what they do and by what earn; they will face extreme and unpleasant consequences and a chastisement from God that will be severe—all because of their persistent denial of truth.

Verses 71–83

Say: “Shall we call upon or rely on anyone or anything, other than ALLAH, which can neither benefit us nor harm us—only to prove our turning away from God after guidance has come to us? This is how the Devil entices and beguiles those who are prone to earthly (low) desires—by saying: ‘Come to Our guidance.’” Say: “True guidance comes from God, Who has inspired us to submit to the Sustainer of the Universe—to maintain constancy in prayer and to be mindful of our responsibilities (taqwa); it is to Him that we will all be gathered.”

God is the One Who has created the universe and the earth in truth. Whenever He says: “Be,” it comes into existence. His words define the truth, and His Dominion will be evident when such manifestation will be announced (trumpet is blown). God knows what is manifest and what is hidden; God is Wise and Aware!

(Remember) when Abraham said to his father, Azar: “How is it that you consider idols to be gods? I see this as you and your community straying from reality.” We helped Abraham to comprehend the essence of the universe and the earth in a way that he might be of those who have full conviction. He reflected on a star that became visible during the night. He thought: “This is my Sustainer God.” But when the star went down, he said: “I cannot worship that which is not permanent.” Then he reflected on the moon rising and said: “Could this be my Sustainer?” But when the moon disappeared, he said: “If my true Sustainer does not guide me, I will become one of those who stray from reality.” Then he reflected on the sun rising and said: “Could this be my Sustainer God? Is this greater than anything else?” So, when the sun too set and disappeared, he said: “O my people, I am clear of all that you worship besides God. Indeed, I have accepted and oriented myself wholly to the Originator of the universe and the earth, being truthful, and I do not associate anything or anyone with God.”

His people did argue with him, and he responded: “Do you dispute with me regarding God and the fact that God has guided me to Him? I am not afraid of those whom you have set up with God, unless my Sustainer wills as such. My Sustainer encompasses all things in His knowledge. Why would not you reflect on these? How could you want me to accept partners that you have set up with God while you are not afraid to set up partners with God for which you have no confirmation from God? Which party, then—you or me—should feel more secure, if you really want to know?” Those who believe in God and do not taint their faith with evils of inequity will have security and are properly guided. This is how We inspired Abraham with Our arguments against his people. We honor by increment whom We please; God is Ever Wise and All Knowing.

Verses 84–93

We (God) blessed him (Abraham) with Isaac and Jacob; We guided each as We did guide Noah before and from his descendants—David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses, and Aaron. This is how We recognize those who do good to others. So was Zacharias, John, Jesus, and Elias—all of them righteous. We also made Ishmael, Elisha, Jonah, and Lot to excel among people. We did select and guide from among their forefathers, their descendants, and contemporaries to the Straight Path.

This is God’s guidance with which He guides whom He wills among His servants; so, if any of them has associated partners with God, then all their activities will have been in vain. These are the chosen people whom We gifted with the book, sound judgment, and prophethood. Now if there are some who deny the truth, know that We have entrusted such truth to a group of people who will remain faithful—these are the people whom God has guided; it behooves you to follow their guidance. Say: “I seek no reward from you; this guidance is just a reminder to all people.”

They fail to understand and acknowledge God the way God should be acknowledged, when they say: “God has revealed nothing to a mortal.” Ask: “Who revealed to Moses the book, which is a Light and a Guide for people; yet you consider it a bundle of paper to claim it but ignore and conceal much of it; it teaches you things that neither you nor your previous generations knew.” Say: “It is God (who sent the book to Moses). Let them be consumed in their meaningless conversations (if they so choose)!”

This (Qur’an) is a blessed book that We have revealed; it confirms all that came before it, and with it you may inform and inspire people of this Mother of Towns (Makkah) and all around it. Those who have firm conviction in the Hereafter do believe in this book, and they are ever vigilant over their services to God. (On the other hand) who is more perverse than the one who constructs lies against God or says: “I have been given revelations while no such revelations have been granted, or I can reveal the likes of which God has revealed.” If you could only comprehend the consequences of such a perverse stance when such persons will face agonies of death and the Angel of Death will approach them (and say): “Separate yourself from your soul; This day you will suffer the consequences—disgrace and humiliation—for speaking against God without any truth and for arrogantly denying God’s messages.”

Verses 94–99

(On Resurrection Day, God will say): “You have come back to Us (God) one by one, just as We created you in the first instance, and you have left behind all that We gave you. We also do not see your intermediaries with you whom you had asserted to be partners with God for your sake. Now the bond that you imagined with your intermediaries has been lost, and such relationships have failed you.”

It is God Who enables grains and seed kernels to germinate. He brings back life from the dead, and He causes death to those who are living. This is your God; how is it that you turn away from such truth? He is the One Who makes the dawn to appear, the night for rest, the sun and the moon to follow prescribed courses. These are the determinations (taqdiru) from God—the Mighty, the Knowing. He it is Who placed the stars so that you may find ways in the darkness on land and sea. We have thus detailed the messages and signs for people who wish to seek knowledge. God is the One Who brought you forth from a single soul and defined for you a term limit and a place to rest. This is how, again, We have detailed the messages and signs for those who wish to know the truth.

It is God Who rains down water from the clouds and causes such water to bring out new growth in all living plants (and vegetation), turn those into lush green foliage, and then produce flowers and grains in clusters, dates from the spathe of date-palm in dense clusters hanging low, and gardens full of grapes, olives, and pomegranates—all alike, yet different. Look at the fruits—how they come forth and ripen. This is how We detail the message for those who wish to believe!

Verses 100–111

They consider the jinns to be God’s partner, whereas ALLAH created them. They also falsely ascribe sons and daughters to God out of ignorance. God is glorious and above anything that one might ascribe to Him. God is the Originator of the Universe and the Earth! How can God have a son while He has no consort? He created all that exists, and He encompasses everything in His knowledge. Such is God, your Sustainer—there is no god but He—Creator of all things! Therefore, serve God—in His care is all that exists. Human vision cannot behold God, whereas God envisions all vision. God is truly Subtle and Aware!

Insightful evidence has already arrived from your Sustainer; therefore, whoever can envision it, it is for his own good, and who remains blind to it will have its consequence. (Tell them): “I am not responsible for your conduct!” This is how We reinforce the messages lest they say: “You have indeed studied it well.” Thus We enable the people of knowledge to understand (Our message). Follow the truth that your Sustainer has revealed—there is no god but God, and remain undeterred by those who subscribe to polytheism. If God had willed, they would not practice polytheism. (Also), We did not assign you as a protector for them, nor are you in charge of them. Be mindful, and do not criticize those whom they invoke besides God, perchance they then revile God out of ignorance. We have made every community to see their conduct as fair in their views, but they will be informed about their activities once they return to their Sustainer.

They swear by God with a strong declaration that if a miracle were to come, they would certainly take faith in it. Say: “Miracles are at God’s disposal.” Do you not realize that even if such miracles were to happen, they would not believe? We keep their hearts and sights turned off, as they did not believe the first time around; We leave them alone in their arrogance, blindly stumbling around. Even if We have angels descend on them, let the dead speak to them, and assemble all evidence in front of them, they would not believe unless God wills (according to their merit); most of them are steeped in ignorance. 

***Excerpt from Volume 3: Social Consciousness – Removing the Middleman Series, by Rashed Hasan. Copyright by Author***

April 2024

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